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Churchill, Winston Leonard Spencer, Sir, 1874 - 1965 (Knight, statesman and historian)

 Person

Dates

  • Existence: 1874 - 1965

Found in 28 Collections and/or Records:

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 File

Literary: articles, Evening Standard., Mar 1936 - Dec 1936

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 8/543
Scope and Contents Annotated proofs of the following articles by WSC: "Britain, Germany and Locarno" and "Stop it Now!" on the need for the League of Nations to act on German troops entering the Rhineland [Germany]; "Where Do We Stand?" on the results of Italy's invasion of Abyssinia [Ethiopia] and the British policy on it; "How Germany is Arming" on German military expenditure; "Our Navy Must Be Stronger"; "Organise Our Supplies" on efficient munitions production; "How to Stop War" on the need for a grand...
Dates: Mar 1936 - Dec 1936
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Literary: articles: Evening Standard 1., Jan 1937 - May 1937

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 8/569
Scope and Contents Annotated proofs and press cuttings of the following articles by WSC: "No Intervention in Spain for us!" on the wisdom of British neutrality in the Spanish Civil War, being equally opposed to both sides, and on the small likelihood of German troops staying with a successful General Franco; "How You Will Help to Meet the Bill" on funding rearmament and the probable need to increase taxation; "Europe's Peace" on the continued threat from Germany; "France Faces a New Crisis" on French economic...
Dates: Jan 1937 - May 1937
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Literary: articles: Evening Standard 3., 15 Sep 1937 - 23 Dec 1937

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 8/571
Scope and Contents Annotated proofs and press cuttings of the following articles by WSC: "Friendship with Germany" on his own and Britain's attitude to Germany; "A Forward Step" on the improved outlook for peace in the Mediterranean, Yugoslavia and Spain, and the disappearance of [Italian] pirate submarines from the Mediterranean; "War is not Imminent" on the need to avoid unnecessary alarmism, the situation in the Far East depending upon the actions of the United States, the tension between Italy and France...
Dates: 15 Sep 1937 - 23 Dec 1937
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Literary: Daily Telegraph articles by WSC: 1., Jan 1939 - Mar 1939

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 8/645
Scope and Contents Includes annotated proofs, galley proofs and cuttings from the Telegraph (and the Belfast Telegraph) for: "Anglo-German Naval Agreement", criticising the 1935 Agreement, the attitude of the Admiralty at that time, German superiority in submarines, and the effect of the Agreement on air parity; "Counting the Cost of Italy's Policies Abroad" on the Anglo-Italian Agreement of 1938, Italian intervention in Spain, and possible Italian conflict with France; "Light and Shade in Europe since Herr...
Dates: Jan 1939 - Mar 1939
Conditions Governing Access: Open.
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Literary: Daily Telegraph articles by WSC: 2., Apr 1939 - Jun 1939

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 8/646
Scope and Contents Includes annotated proofs, galley proofs and cuttings from the Telegraph (and the Belfast Telegraph) for: "Would Peace or War Better Serve Mussolini's Interests?" on Italy's violation of the Anglo-Italian Agreement particularly over the invasion of Albania, Italy's potential weakness in a Mediterranean war and WSC's hopes of the Italian people's reluctance to become involved in such a war; "President Roosevelt and Franco's choice" on Roosevelt's stance towards Europe and arguing for Spanish...
Dates: Apr 1939 - Jun 1939
Conditions Governing Access: Open.
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Literary: Daily Telegraph articles by WSC 3., Oct 1938 - Dec 1938

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 8/613
Scope and Contents Includes annotated proofs, galley proofs and cuttings from the Telegraph (and regional newspapers carrying the article) for: "France, Britain, and the Future Fate of Europe" on the need for unity between Britain and France, and apportioning blame for the situation in Czechoslovakia; "Palestine at the Cross-roads" on Jewish and Arab conflict, arguing against partition, and advocating the restoration of order; "All is Not Lost in China" on the state of the Sino-Japanese War, future prospects,...
Dates: Oct 1938 - Dec 1938
Conditions Governing Access: Open.
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Literary: Evening Standard articles by WSC., Jan 1938 - Sep 1938

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 8/610
Scope and Contents Includes annotated proofs and cuttings from the Standard (and regional newspapers carrying the article) for: "Britain Rearms" on British naval, army and air strength; "What Japan Thinks of Us" on the Japanese racial attitude to the British and Americans, Japan's naval strength and US policy concerning the Sino-Japanese War; "The League [of Nations] is not Dead Yet" on the power of the dictatorships in Europe, a defence of the League, and asserting the need for Britain and France to show...
Dates: Jan 1938 - Sep 1938
Conditions Governing Access: Open.
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Literary: Picture Post articles., Mar 1939 - Aug 1939

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 8/655
Scope and Contents Includes annotated proofs, galley proofs and cuttings from Picture Post for: "What Britain's Policy Should Be", an interview with WSC in which he gives his views on British foreign policy over the preceding years and at that time, advocates co-operation with France, the United States and the Soviet Union against Germany, comments on the Spanish Civil War, the need to form a broader British government and civil defence; "How the War Began" on the build up to World War I, the assassination of...
Dates: Mar 1939 - Aug 1939
Conditions Governing Access: Open.
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Literary: "The Second World War", Volume 1 "The Gathering Storm": Book 1: Master copy proofs., 30 Jan 1948

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHUR 4/119
Scope and Contents Includes galley proofs of: Chapter 1 "The Follies of the Victors, 1919 - 1929"; Chapter 2 "Peace at its Zenith, 1922 - 1931"; Chapter 3 "Lurking Dangers"; Chapter 4 "Adolf Hitler"; Chapter 5 "The Locust Years, 1931 - 1935"; Chapter 6 "The Darkening Scene, 1934"; Chapter 7 "Air Parity Lost, 1934 - 1935"; Chapter 8 "Challenge and Response, 1935"; Chapter 9 "Problems of Air and Sea, 1935 - 1939"; Chapter 10 "Sanctions Against Italy, 1935"; Chapter 11 "Hitler Strikes, 1936"; Chapter 12 "The...
Dates: 30 Jan 1948
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Literary: "The Second World War", Volume 1, "The Gathering Storm": chapter 12 "The Loaded Pause [Spain, 1936-1937]": copy and provisional proofs., [Jan] 1947 - Oct 1947

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHUR 4/86
Scope and Contents Includes typescript, manuscript, and galley proofs annotated with suggested corrections and amendments from various people including: [William] Deakin [literary assistant], WSC, "K H" [secretary Kathleen Hill], "E M" [Sir Edward Marsh], "H R P" [Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Pownall], [secretary Elizabeth Gilliatt], and Isaiah Berlin.Also includes: proofs of WSC's speeches at the Albert Hall [London] (3 December 1936) and to the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Commons (30 March...
Dates: [Jan] 1947 - Oct 1947
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Literary: "The Second World War", Volume 1 "The Gathering Storm": Chapters 11 - 21: 'Returned empties'., 29 Dec 1947 - 12 Feb 1948

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHUR 4/114A-K
Scope and Contents Includes typescript and galley proofs of: Chapter 11 "Hitler Strikes, 1936"; Chapter 12 "The Loaded Pause - Spain 1936 - 1937); Chapter 13 "Germany Armed, 1936 - 1938"; Chapter 14 "Mr [Anthony] Eden [later 1st Lord Avon] at the Foreign Office and His Resignation"; Chapter 15 "The Rape of Austria, February 1938"; Chapter 16 "Czechoslovakia"; Chapter 17 "The Tragedy of Munich" [Germany]; Chapter 18 "Munich Winter"; Chapter 19 "Prague, Albania and the Polish Guarantee"; Chapter 20 "The Soviet...
Dates: 29 Dec 1947 - 12 Feb 1948
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Literary: various articles by WSC., Jan 1938 - Nov 1938

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 8/609
Scope and Contents Includes: Press cutting for "1938 - World's Year of Fate", published in Answers (29 January 1938), briefly commenting on rearmament, the Spanish Civil War, the threat of Japan, Italy and Germany, and the role of Britain, France and the United States. Cuttings and proofs for "Women in War", published in the February edition of the Strand Magazine, looking at the subject from both an historical perspective, focusing on figures such as Joan of Arc, and examining the contemporary situation...
Dates: Jan 1938 - Nov 1938
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Public and Political: General: Correspondence., Jun 1936 - 30 Mar 1937

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 2/295
Scope and Contents Correspondents include: William Ormsby-Gore [Secretary of State for the Colonies, later 4th Lord Harlech] on the Peel Commission [into Britain's Palestine Mandate]; "Harold R" [1st Lord Rothermere, earlier Sir Harold Harmsworth] on Randolph Churchill's interview with General Franco for the Daily Mail, and Franco's sensible policies; Oliver Locker-Lampson; 4th Lord Camden, President, Kent Council of Social Service; Philip Guedalla [Honorary Director, Ibero- American Institute of Great...
Dates: Jun 1936 - 30 Mar 1937
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Public and Political: General: Correspondence., 01 Oct 1937 - 30 Dec 1937

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 2/299
Scope and Contents Correspondents include: Shane Leslie; Sir Hubert Young [Governor and Commander- in-Chief of Northern Rhodesia, later Zambia]; General Sir Ian Hamilton on claims by Margot, Lady Oxford and Asquith [earlier Margot Asquith] on the resignation of 1st Lord Haldane [as Lord Chancellor, 1915] (2); Marshal of the RAF 1st Lord Trenchard on meeting the German Official Air Mission; Bernard Freyberg; 1st Lord Beaverbrook [earlier Sir Max Aitken] on the Privy Councillorships of F E Smith [1st Lord...
Dates: 01 Oct 1937 - 30 Dec 1937
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Public and Political: General: Correspondence., 05 Oct 1937 - 31 Mar 1938

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 2/328
Scope and Contents Correspondents include: 1st Lord Rothermere [earlier Sir Harold Harmsworth] on the French financial capability for war; Anthony Eden [Foreign Secretary, later 1st Lord Avon]; 1st Lord Craigavon [earlier Sir James Craig], Prime Minister of Northern Ireland; Samuel Hood [Assistant Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for India]; Lord Ednam [later 4th Lord Dudley], President, Eton Political Society (2); Brigadier-General Sir Henry Page Croft on a meeting of the Friends of Spain group,...
Dates: 05 Oct 1937 - 31 Mar 1938
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Public and Political: General: Correspondence., 29 Dec 1937 - 15 Jul 1947

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 2/330
Scope and Contents Correspondents include: Ramsay Muir [Vice-President, Liberal Party Organization] on the possibility of a by-election in Epping [Essex]; Lieutenant-General Sir [George] Tom Bridges on WSC's speech at Sheffield [Yorkshire, 31 May] and wartime conscription; Philip Noel-Baker; Don Pablo de Azcarate y Florez, Spanish Ambassador to Britain, on including Spain in WSC's call for a team of peace-seeking nations; 10th Lord Elgin (and 14th Lord Kincardine [earlier Lord Bruce]), President, General...
Dates: 29 Dec 1937 - 15 Jul 1947
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Public and Political: General: Correspondence., 28 Jan 1939 - 30 Apr 1939

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 2/358A-B
Scope and Contents Correspondents include: Charles Pears, President of the Society of Marine Artists (2); Katharine, Duchess of Atholl, on allegations of Nationalist atrocities in Spain; Group-Captain Lachlan Maclean (2); "Reggie" [Reginald Fellowes] (3); [James] Vincent Sheean; [Lionel] Archer Cust, Secretary, Royal Empire Society; 9th Lord de la Warr [President, Board of Education, earlier Lord Buckhurst]; Sir Horace Rumbold [former British Ambassador to Germany] on the Government's policy towards Hitler;...
Dates: 28 Jan 1939 - 30 Apr 1939
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Public and Political: General: correspondence, mostly on the Munich Crisis, from the general public in Britain and abroad, mostly supporting WSC's stance., Oct 1938 - Jan 1939

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 2/605A-B
Scope and Contents Correspondents include: Major-General Sir Guy Beatty, Sir Albert Howard, Sir Robert Bird, Sir Michael Sadler, and [John] Eric Allden on WSC's broadcast to the United States of 16 October; George Bailey on modernising dry docks; [John Warren] MacAlpine on getting information into Germany and Italy; Sir Leonard Hill of the St John Clinic and Institute of Physical Medicine on birth rates; A H Richards [General Organising Secretary of the Anti-Nazi Council] (5) on organising meetings and support...
Dates: Oct 1938 - Jan 1939
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Public and Political: General: Defence of Freedom and Peace., 29 Jul 1936 - 31 Dec 1936

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 2/283
Scope and Contents Correspondents include: A H Richards, [Secretary, Focus in Defence of Freedom and Peace] on meetings of the Focus (earlier the Freedom and Peace Union, and Peace with Freedom Movement), extending the focus group to the United States, avoiding the appearance of British propaganda and solely Jewish backing, extending into France, an invitation for WSC to address the movement in the United States, avoiding rivalry with other related organizations, inviting various individuals, including WSC, to...
Dates: 29 Jul 1936 - 31 Dec 1936
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Public and Political: General: Defence of Freedom and Peace Union., 08 Jan 1938 - 23 Dec 1938

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 2/343A-B
Scope and Contents Correspondence on the Focus in Defence of Freedom and Peace, mainly between WSC and A H Richards [Secretary of the Focus] on subjects including: the visit of [? Ivan Subasic], Ban of Croatia [Yugoslavia]; the pacifism movement among the churches; meetings of the Focus, where WSC gave speeches, including mass meetings at Manchester (9 May), Bristol [16 May], Sheffield [Yorkshire, 31 May], Birmingham (2 June) and Chingford [Essex, 11 December]; a joint campaign with the League of Nations...
Dates: 08 Jan 1938 - 23 Dec 1938
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Public and Political: General: League of Nations Union., 03 Apr 1936 - 02 Dec 1936

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 2/286
Scope and Contents Correspondents include: Sir Austen Chamberlain on subjects including views on colonial policy expressed in a League of Nations Union pamphlet, WSC's defence deputations to the Prime Minister [Stanley Baldwin] and refusing to sign the union's declaration of its aims (2); 1st Lord Cecil of Chelwood [earlier Lord Robert Cecil], President, League of Nations Union and Joint-President, International Peace Campaign, on subjects including his vote for rearmament in the House of Lords, the difficulty...
Dates: 03 Apr 1936 - 02 Dec 1936
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Public and Political: General: Personal Office correspondence, N-Q., Jan 1936 - Dec 1940

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 2/397
Scope and Contents Correspondents include: Duncan Sandys (2), Sir Geoffrey Fry [Private Secretary to Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin] (5), J Norris (a "working-man Conservative") (5), and Marjorie Maxse, Chief Organising Officer, Conservative and Unionist Party, on subjects including a dispute between Sandys and Norris over payment for his services and meetings organised by Norris; Sir Terence O'Connor congratulating WSC on his speech of 11 April 1940 and his leadership (3); Una, Lady O'Dwyer on the death of...
Dates: Jan 1936 - Dec 1940
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Public and Political: General: Spain., 10 Feb 1937 - 14 Dec 1937

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 2/314
Scope and Contents Correspondents on the Spanish Civil War include: the Marques del Moral [representative of the Nationalists] on the illegality of the Spanish Government; Pablo, Marques de Merry del Val [former Spanish Ambassador to Britain] on subjects including the Communist dictatorship in the Government, WSC's article ["Spain's Road to Peace"], Communist propaganda, and the mercy shown by General Franco to his opponents (4); Robert Graves on WSC's misinformation about Communist influence and interference...
Dates: 10 Feb 1937 - 14 Dec 1937
Conditions Governing Access: Open, except for folios 57-58, closed on Cabinet Office instructions under S27 of the Freedom of Information Act. Review date 1 January 2021.
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Speeches: House of Commons: speech notes., 01 Jun 1937 - 21 Dec 1937

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 9/124
Scope and Contents Notes for WSC's speech (1 June) on the finance bill, taxation, and objecting to the method of raising the proposed National Defence Contribution. Published: Complete Speeches VI pp 5857-67.Notes for WSC's speech (15 July) supporting the government and objecting to the opposition motion of censure on non-intervention in Spain. Published: Complete Speeches VI pp 5870-4.Notes for WSC's speech (19 July) expressing his concern about the mounting of heavy howitzer cannons near Gibraltar,...
Dates: 01 Jun 1937 - 21 Dec 1937
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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Speeches: House of Commons: speech notes and source material., 27 Jan 1937 - 24 May 1937

Reference Code: GBR/0014/CHAR 9/123
Scope and Contents Rough notes for WSC's speech (27 January) on air defence, comparing British and German air strength. Source material includes copy of Hansard for 12 November 1936 containing WSC's speech ["The locust years"]. Published: Complete Speeches VI pp 5825-7.Notes for WSC's speech (4 March) on the defence loan bill, praising its long term nature, but expressing concern over Britain's defences in the immediate future. Published: Complete Speeches VI pp 5830-5.Notes for WSC's speech (11 March)...
Dates: 27 Jan 1937 - 24 May 1937
Conditions Governing Access: Open
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